Radiation

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Nuclear explosion
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Temperatue up to 10**7 C (18*10^6 F) is produced in a 1/10^6 s 
	over time or in the first second or what? [1]

Energy is released in all directions [1]
	in forms of [radiation, EMP, light, heat, sound, blast]
	takes up to the first minute

	Light largely ultraviolet, infrared [1]
		cause blindness, possibly temporary
	
	Heat [1]
		1/3 of the energy
		radiates in straight lines at velocity of light

	Blast [1]
		Wave of compressed air moves away
			at ~ speed of sound
			lasts several seconds
			feels more like a wind, than shock wave
			main cause of damage to buildings

		A wave of air rushes back in seconds after the initial blast [3]
			at several hundred km/h [1]
			draws dust and cold air
			forms Mushroom cloud

	EMP [1]
		byproduct of the immediate energy release

		effect dimnishes with distance sharply
			but still can cause damage in range distances greater than those of Light,Heat or Blast

		distance is directly related to the height of the burst, strength of blast and natural features in the path

		produces electrical and magnetic fields
			where runs eddie currents [3] [5]

		severely affect
			electronic equipment
			electrical & radar transmissions

		



Mushroom cloud [1]
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	rises many thousands of meters
	at velocity up to 480 km/h
	
	As the (heat ?) raises, it sucks up after it a column of dust from the earth's surface and cold air


Eddie Current [5]
=================
Flow of electrons, or current in the body of conductor exposed to changing a changing magnetic field
term eddie current comes from analogous currents in water


EM spectrum [1]
===============
rays
	cosmic
	gamma
	x-rays
	ultraviolet
	infrared
	radio

visible light

Radiation
=========
effects of results from decay of radioactive substances [1]
	those are:
		gamma rays, alpha & beta particles, neutrons
		subset of EM spectrum
		all four follows a nuclear explosion
	
	alpha
		nuclei of helium atoms
			2 protons, 2 neutrons bound together

		penetration
			couple of inches of air, or few sheets of paper effectively blocks them

		charge positive

	beta
		electrons
		charge negative
		penetration
			could penetrate 3mm aluminium
	

	gamma
		high energy photons
		
		can be detected on other side of several centimeters of lead
		don't penetrate lead



Fallout [1]
===========
sucked dust from earths surface 
+ residue of the weapon
# ^ FIXME: weapon?
mostly large particles
falls down by the force of gravity within a day
somewhere around hundreds of km 
	depends on weather
		wind velocity and direction

may be dragged down by rain or snow = rainout/snowout

detonation in air where fireball do not touch the ground
	fission products
		(initialy gaseous form)
		rise the fireball to troposphere or stratosphere

		after cooling down
			radioactive materials condensates or coagulates and form particles
			these are very small => they descent very slow ; up to many months


Mass fires [1]
==============
TODO

Nuclear reaction
================
TODO


Notes
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[C] = [F] - 32 * (5/9)
speed of sound = c [2]
	343.2 m/s = 1236 km/h ; 20C && 1 atmosphere && dry air
	~ 1.009 c ; 15C && 1 atmosphere && dry air
	~ 1.3 c ; dry air, 35*10^3 feet

Wind at 105-137 km/h [4]
	Minor or no damage.
	Peels surface off some roofs; some damage to gutters or siding; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over.

Sources
=======
.. [1] http://www.ta7.de/txt/anleitun/anle0026.htm
.. [2] http://www.wolframalpha.com
.. [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom_cloud#Physics
.. [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind#Fujita_scale
.. [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddy_current
.. [6] http://www.imagesco.com/articles/geiger/01.html