Radiation

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Document style ============== references at higher nodes are inherited by the lower ones unless explicitly overiden node level is delimited by indentation document is written in ReST CBA to reformat

Nuclear explosion ================= Temperatue up to 10**7 C (18*10^6 F) is produced in a 1/10^6 s over time or in the first second or what? [1] Energy is released in all directions [1] in forms of [radiation, EMP, light, heat, sound, blast] takes up to the first minute Light largely ultraviolet, infrared [1] cause blindness, possibly temporary Heat [1] 1/3 of the energy radiates in straight lines at velocity of light Blast [1] Wave of compressed air moves away at ~ speed of sound lasts several seconds feels more like a wind, than shock wave main cause of damage to buildings A wave of air rushes back in seconds after the initial blast [3] at several hundred km/h [1] draws dust and cold air forms Mushroom cloud EMP [1] byproduct of the immediate energy release effect dimnishes with distance sharply but still can cause damage in range distances greater than those of Light,Heat or Blast distance is directly related to the height of the burst, strength of blast and natural features in the path produces electrical and magnetic fields where runs eddie currents [3] [5] severely affect electronic equipment electrical & radar transmissions Mushroom cloud [1] ============== rises many thousands of meters at velocity up to 480 km/h As the (heat ?) raises, it sucks up after it a column of dust from the earth's surface and cold air Eddie Current [5] ================= Flow of electrons, or current in the body of conductor exposed to changing a changing magnetic field term eddie current comes from analogous currents in water EM spectrum [1] =============== rays cosmic gamma x-rays ultraviolet infrared radio visible light Radiation ========= effects of results from decay of radioactive substances [1] those are: gamma rays, alpha & beta particles, neutrons subset of EM spectrum all four follows a nuclear explosion alpha nuclei of helium atoms 2 protons, 2 neutrons bound together penetration couple of inches of air, or few sheets of paper effectively blocks them charge positive beta electrons charge negative penetration could penetrate 3mm aluminium gamma high energy photons can be detected on other side of several centimeters of lead don't penetrate lead Fallout [1] =========== sucked dust from earths surface + residue of the weapon # ^ FIXME: weapon? mostly large particles falls down by the force of gravity within a day somewhere around hundreds of km depends on weather wind velocity and direction may be dragged down by rain or snow = rainout/snowout detonation in air where fireball do not touch the ground fission products (initialy gaseous form) rise the fireball to troposphere or stratosphere after cooling down radioactive materials condensates or coagulates and form particles these are very small => they descent very slow ; up to many months Mass fires [1] ============== TODO Nuclear reaction ================ TODO Notes ===== [C] = [F] - 32 * (5/9) speed of sound = c [2] 343.2 m/s = 1236 km/h ; 20C && 1 atmosphere && dry air ~ 1.009 c ; 15C && 1 atmosphere && dry air ~ 1.3 c ; dry air, 35*10^3 feet Wind at 105-137 km/h [4] Minor or no damage. Peels surface off some roofs; some damage to gutters or siding; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over. Sources ======= .. [1] http://www.ta7.de/txt/anleitun/anle0026.htm .. [2] http://www.wolframalpha.com .. [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom_cloud#Physics .. [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind#Fujita_scale .. [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddy_current .. [6] http://www.imagesco.com/articles/geiger/01.html